Bragar Surely, they evil-doers will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day. Imam Ibn Qudamah Al Maqdisi. Imam Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab. Hall Carl Marks Carol L.
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Muslim alone narrated this hadith apart from al-Bukhari. We went in shoulder to shoulder with him, I and my companion, one on his right and the other on his left. In it there is some extra about Islam. Take it from him. By the One in Whose hand is my self, he was disguised to me since he [first] came to me before this occasion, and [so] I did not recognise him until he turned away. When you see naked barefoot ones becoming the leaders of men, that is one of its signs.
And no self knows what it will earn tomorrow and no self knows in what land it will die. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. It is a hadith of tremendous importance which comprises an explanation of the whole deen. The narrations differ on whether Islam comes first before iman or vice-versa. In the hadith of at-Tirmidhi and others, he began by asking about iman, as for example in the hadith of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him.
As for Islam, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, explained it as the outward actions of the limbs such as words and deeds, the first of which is witnessing [shahadah] that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, which is an action of the tongue. Then there is establishing the prayer, paying zakat, fasting Ramadan and hajj of the House for whoever is able to take a way to it. They divide into physical actions such as prayer and fasting, actions involving wealth, which is the production of the zakat, and one compounded of both of them such as the hajj with respect to those who are far away from Makkah [since it involves spending a great deal of money and physical worship].
If someone enters Islam by that means, he is bound to undertake the establishment of the rest of the characteristics of Islam. Whoever leaves out the two shahadahs has gone out of Islam. One of the things which show that all outward actions are comprised under the name Islam are his words, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe.
Whoever is deficient in anyone of them in any way, then it is a portion of Islam which he has left out. Whoever leaves out [all of] them has cast Islam behind his back. The head of them and the one which encompasses them is the witnessing that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, [then there is] the establishment of prayer, the production of zakat, completion of wudu, judging by the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, obeying those charged with governance, greeting each other and greeting your families when you enter your houses, and greeting the descendants of Adam whenever you meet them.
When he said, "Islam is a portion" he meant the two shahadahs because they are the sign of Islam by which a person becomes a Muslim. Enter the path, all of you! And do not deviate. Do not open it, for if you open it you will enter it. Section - Iman As for iman, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, explained it in this hadith as inward beliefs, saying, "That you have iman in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Rising after death, and that you have iman in the Decree, the good of it and the bad of it.
We do not differentiate between any of His Messengers. Included in iman in the Decree is the good of it and the bad of it. Belief in the Decree has two degrees: first, belief that Allah, exalted is He, has prior knowledge of what good and evil the slaves do, their obedience and disobedience, before creating them and bringing them into existence, knowing who of them are people of the Garden and who of them are for the Fire.
This is the degree which the people of the Sunnah and of the Community affirm, but which the people of free-will al-Qadariyyah reject and deny. In attributing kufr to them there is a well-known disagreement among the people of knowledge.
If someone says that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made a distinction in this hadith between Islam and iman, and regarded all the actions as a part of Islam but not of iman, then [we say that] the well known position of the right-acting first generations and the people of hadith is that iman is word, deed and intention, and that all of the actions are comprised under iman. The first right-acting generations strenuously rejected whoever excludes deeds from iman.
Ath-Thawri said, "It is an innovated view, and we found people [before us] holding another view. Someone said, "The matter is as he said. They are in truth the muminun. And modesty is a branch of iman. In the two sahih books there is from Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The adulterer does not commit adultery when he does so while being a mumin, nor does the one who drinks wine do so while he is a mumin.
The thief does not steal when he does so while being a mumin. As for the aspect of unifying these texts with the hadith of the questioning of Jibril, peace be upon him, about Islam and iman, and the distinctions the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made between them, and his including actions under Islam rather than under iman, it becomes clear by the determination of a principle, which is that some names comprise many named things when they are used by themselves and unrestrictedly.
If either one is used singly it designates all those who are in need, but if one is used along with the other then one of the two designates some of those who are in need and the other designates the rest of them. It is similar with the terms Islam and iman. If one of the terms is used alone it comprises the meanings of the other, and by being used singly it designates what the other would designate if used singly.
If they are coupled one of them designates only some of that which it would designate if used singly, and the other designates the rest. A group of the imams have stated this clearly. By this detailed statement, the exact determination of the meaning of the statement as to whether iman and Islam are one thing or two different things becomes clear.
The people of the Sunnah and of the hadith differ on it, and they have compiled numerous works about it. This is another clear indication that when one of the two terms is used singly it includes [the meanings of] the other, and that a distinction is only made between them when one of the two terms is coupled with the other, at which time what is meant by iman is everything that comprises affirmation from the heart, and by Islam everything that comprises action.
In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad there is from Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Islam is public, whereas iman is in the heart. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in his supplication when performing the prayer over the dead, "O Allah, whomever of us you make to live, let him live in Islam, and whomever of us you make to die, let him die in iman," because deeds are done by the limbs which one is only able to do while alive.
From this the people of knowledge who ascertain the fine details of knowledge say that every mumin is a Muslim, because whoever makes a reality of iman and it becomes firmly established in his heart will undertake the actions of Islam, as he said, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "Certainly, in the body there is a morsel of flesh, which if it is sound then the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt the whole body is corrupt.
Certainly it is the heart. Say rather, "We have become Muslim," for iman has not yet entered into your hearts. There is no doubt that whenever inward iman is weak it necessarily follows that outward actions will be weak as well, but use of the term iman is precluded for whoever leaves out any of his duties, just as in his words, "The adulterer does not commit adultery when he does while being a mumin.
The people of knowledge differ as to whether someone who perpetrates one of the great wrong actions is called a kafir with a lesser kufr or a hypocrite with a lesser hypocrisy, but I know of none of them who permit the unqualified negation of the application of the term Islam to such a person [i.
The story was told to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who spoke to him severely. He told us that Yusuf, peace be upon him, supplicated that he should die in Islam, all of which shows that Islam used unqualifiedly comprises everything of affirmation which iman comprises.
Moreover, the two shahadahs are indisputably some of the features of Islam, but it is not meant that one should merely articulate them without affirming them to be true, so we know that affirmation of them is comprised under Islam. If use of the term iman is precluded for someone whose Islam is established, such as the desert Arabs about whom Allah informs us, then what is precluded is the first establishment of iman in the heart although it is established that he shares in the outward actions of Islam along with a type of iman which renders his actions sound for without this measure of iman he would not be a Muslim.
They [the desert Arabs] were only excluded from use of the term iman because they lacked the tasting of some of its realities and because of shortcomings in some of its requirements. For this reason, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, defined the degree of ihsan as that the slave should worship and serve his Lord as if he sees him, and this is not obtained by the generality of the muminun.
One of them said, "Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, does not have precedence over you because of a great amount of fasting and prayer, but because of something which settled in his breast. Or such as those people from among the people of tawhid who will emerge from the Fire?
These are the ones about whom one could correctly say, "Iman has not entered into their hearts," because of its feebleness with them. The disagreements as to what they designate were the first disagreements to arise in this community, which was the disagreement of the Khawarij with the Companions, since they regarded disobedient people possessed tawhid as entirely out of Islam and counted them as being in the circle of kufr and treated them as they would kuffar, by which they declared it permissible to shed the blood of Muslims and seize their property.
All groups after them compiled great numbers of works on it. In this I have mentioned some comprehensive points which cover many principles of these issues and the disagreements that there are respecting them, and there is in it, if Allah wills, sufficiency. Some of the actions of Islam are: to make the deen purely for the sake of Allah, exalted is He, and to be sincere to Him and to His slaves, and guard the heart from deceiving or envying them or being spiteful to them and from all the other forms of harm.
We will mention some of the texts narrated about that. In the two sahih books there is from Abu Musa that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked, "Who is the best of the Muslims? It is sufficient evil for a man that he despise his Muslim brother. All of the Muslim is sacred for the Muslim: his blood, property and honour. And there are His words, "Put your trust in Allah if you are muminun. And there are His words, "fear Me if you are muminun.
Contentment with Islam as deen comprises choosing and preferring it over all other deens. Contentment with Muhammad as Messenger involves contentment with everything that he brought from Allah and accepting it with surrender and joy, as He says, exalted is He, "No, by your Lord, they are not muminun until they make you their judge in the disputes that break out between them, and then find no resistance within themselves to what you decide and submit themselves completely.
If you are like that, then the love of iman has already entered your heart as love of water has entered [the heart of] the thirsty person on a scorching hot day.
By Allah, he does not have iman! When he loves for the sake of Allah and hates for the sake of Allah he has become worthy of friendship from Allah, exalted is He.
The slave will never find the savour of iman, even if he does a great deal of prayer and fasting until he is like that. It is coupled with iman in His words, exalted is He, "Those who have iman and do right actions are not to blame for anything they have eaten provided they have taqwa and iman and do right actions, and then again have taqwa and iman, and then have taqwa and do good ahsanou.
All who submit themselves completely to Allah and are good-doers muhsinun will find their reward with their Lord," Surat al-Baqarah: , and in His words, exalted is He, "Those who submit themselves completely to Allah and do good ahsanou have grasped the Firmest Handhold. The reward of that is gazing upon Allah with the eyes in the next life. The opposite of this is that which Allah, exalted is He, informs us of the recompense of the kuffar in the next life, "No indeed!
Rather that Day they will be veiled from their Lord," Surat al-Mutaffifin: 15 which He makes their reward for their condition in the world, because their reward for that state is that they are veiled from seeing Him in the next life. His words, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, on ihsan, "That you should worship Allah as if you see Him There is in it that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked him, "Harithah, how are you this morning? Because every statement has a reality.
Later he met him and apologised saying, "We were in tawaf visualising Allah before our eyes. About his saying, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, "For if you do not see Him, He sees you," it is said that it [the latter] is like a cause of the first, because when the slave is commanded to be fearfully watchful of Allah, exalted is He, in his worship and to bear in his heart His nearness to His slave to such an extent that it is as if the slave sees Him, then that is difficult for him and he can seek help in that with his trust that Allah sees him and watches over his private and his public lives, his inward and his outward, and that nothing of him is hidden from Him.
Someone said that rather it indicates that whoever finds it difficult to worship Allah, exalted is He, as if he sees Him, then let him worship Allah on the basis that Allah sees him and watches over him, and let him be modest before His gaze towards him, as one of the gnostics said, "Fear Allah, lest He should become the most insignificant of those who look at you. When the slave seeks to keep this in his consciousness during his actions, and he works on that basis then he is sincere towards Allah, exalted is He, since his seeking to keep that in his consciousness during his action prevents him from turning to other than Allah and intending any other in his action.
Second, [she indicated] the station of witnessing, which is that the slave acts according to the requirements of his witnessing of Allah, exalted is He, in his heart, and it is that the heart is illuminated by iman, and the inner sight pierces through to gnosis, so much so that the Unseen becomes as if it were right in front of the eyes. This is the reality of the station of ihsan indicated in the hadith of Jibril, peace be upon him, and the people of these stations have different degrees according to the strength of penetration of their inner sight.
A party of the people of knowledge explained the "most exalted designation" mentioned in His words, exalted is He, "His is the most exalted designation in the heavens and the earth," Surat ar-Rum 27 with this meaning, and similarly His words, exalted is He, "Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.
The metaphor of His Light is that of a niche in which there is a lamp. He is with them If he remembers me in his self, I remember him in Myself. If he remembers me in an assembly, I remember him in an assembly better than it.
If he draws nearer to me by the span of a hand, I draw nearer to him by a cubit.
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