Marquis de Condorcet. Francis Bacon. Early advocate of data collection and its analysis as the basis of sound knowledge Baconian method in fields that include social science and the humanities. Believed that the universe is rational and united and that interconnected truths run from physics to biology to moral reasoning. Descartes unified geometry and algebra see: Cartesian coordinate system.
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Main article: Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Wilson used sociobiology and evolutionary principles to explain the behavior of social insects and then to understand the social behavior of other animals, including humans, thus establishing sociobiology as a new scientific field.
He argued that all animal behavior, including that of humans, is the product of heredity , environmental stimuli, and past experiences, and that free will is an illusion. He has referred to the biological basis of behaviour as the "genetic leash".
This theory and research proved to be seminal, controversial, and influential. The target of selection is normally the individual who carries an ensemble of genes of certain kinds. There are, Wilson suggests in the chapter, limits on just how much influence social and environmental factors can have in altering human behavior. I believe that he was Sociobiology re-ignited the nature and nurture debate. Wilson was accused of racism , misogyny , and sympathy to eugenics.
I was the only scientist in modern times to be physically attacked for an idea. Rothrock in " Midgley praised the book for the study of animal behavior, clarity, scholarship, and encyclopedic scope, but extensively critiqued Wilson for conceptual confusion, scientism, and anthropomorphism of genetics. Wilson has said in reference to ants " Karl Marx was right, socialism works, it is just that he had the wrong species". Humans, however, do possess reproductive independence so they can give birth to offspring without the need of a "queen", and in fact humans enjoy their maximum level of Darwinian fitness only when they look after themselves and their offspring, while finding innovative ways to use the societies they live in for their own benefit.
Wilson used the term " consilience " to describe the synthesis of knowledge from different specialized fields of human endeavor. He defined human nature as a collection of epigenetic rules, the genetic patterns of mental development.
He argued that culture and rituals are products, not parts, of human nature. He said art is not part of human nature, but our appreciation of art is. He suggested that concepts such as art appreciation, fear of snakes, or the incest taboo Westermarck effect could be studied by scientific methods of the natural sciences and be part of interdisciplinary research. In , he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto.
In his book The Creation, Wilson suggests that scientists ought to "offer the hand of friendship" to religious leaders and build an alliance with them, stating that "Science and religion are two of the most potent forces on Earth and they should come together to save the creation.
You are drastically imperiling a vast array of species within a few square miles of you. The number of these species may go to tens of thousands. Many of them are still unknown to science, and science has not yet discovered the key role undoubtedly played in the maintenance of that ecosystem , as in the case of fungi , microorganisms , and many of the insects.
Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge
Main article: Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Wilson used sociobiology and evolutionary principles to explain the behavior of social insects and then to understand the social behavior of other animals, including humans, thus establishing sociobiology as a new scientific field. He argued that all animal behavior, including that of humans, is the product of heredity , environmental stimuli, and past experiences, and that free will is an illusion. He has referred to the biological basis of behaviour as the "genetic leash". This theory and research proved to be seminal, controversial, and influential.
E. O. Wilson
He intends to connect all things together, reconciling different fields of study with one another. Adhering to the ancient idea that the universe is governed by order, he believes that there are a few natural laws which can inherently explain everything about the world in which we live. He goes on to support this theory by appealing to science, art, religion, ethics, and history. To begin with, the Enlightenment period was characterized by a renewed commitment to order. The artists and scientists of this era believed that rationality could explain everything if pursued faithfully and persistently, but they did not possess the scientific knowledge to take their ideas too far. He does not think that a law discovered in the field of physics for example should be considered credible if that same law is inconsistent in the field of biology. He is looking for unifying laws which apply throughout every field and every mode of thought.
Review of E.O. Wilson’s “Consilience”