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Newtonian Mechanics A. Collision processes in 1wo dimensions Elastic nuclear collisions — Inelastic and explosive processes What is a collision? Same exampes ofthe energy method " The harmon sell bythe nergy metod SinaDosclons in gveel 95 The ner csllatr asa to-boty protien Coton process mcling every sorge 00 Theduaomie moleoue roetene aI! The Center was established by M. Friedman as its Director. Since the Center has been sup- ported mainly by the National Science Foundation; generous support has also been received from the Kettering Foundation, the Shell Companies Foundation, the Victoria Foundation, the W.
Grant Foundation, and the Bing Foundation. The series seeks to emphasize the interaction of experiment and intui- tion in generating physical theories. The various volumes are intended to be compatible in level and style of treatment but are not conceived asa tightly knit package; on the contrary, each book is designed to be reasonably self-contained and usable as an individual com ponent in many different course structures.
A rough guide to the possible use of the book is suggested by its division into three parts. Firs, it does discuss the basic concepts of kinematics and dynamics, more or less from scratch. Second, it seeks to place the study of mechanics squarely in the context of the world of physical phenomena and of necessarily imperfect physical theories.
Part Il, Classical Mechanics at Work, is undoubtedly the heart of the book. Some instructors will wish to begin here, and relegate Part I to the status of background reading. Later, the emphasis shifts to systems of two or more particles, and to the conservation laws for momentum and energy. Part III, Some Special Topics, concerns itself with the prob- lems of noninertial frames, central-force motions, and rotational dynamics. Most of this material, except perhaps the fundamental features of rotational motion and angular momentum, could be regarded as optional if this book is used as the basis of a genuinely introductory presentation of mechanics.
This book, like the others in the series, owes much to the thoughts, criticisms, and suggestions of many people, both students and instructors. Hudson, of Occiden- tal College, Los Angeles, who worked with the present author ia the preparation of the preliminary text from which, five years later, this final version evolved. Grateful thanks are also due to Eva M, Hakala and William H, Ingham for their invaluable help in preparing the manuscript for publication. Classical mechanics is a subject with a fascinating dual character, Fort starts out from the kinds of everyday experiences that are as old as mankind, yet it brings us face to face with some of the most profound questions about the universe in which we find ourselves.
Sometimes mechanics is presented as, though it consisted merely of the routine application of self evident or revealed truths. Nothing could be further from the case; itis a superb example of a physical theory, slowly evolved and refined through the continuing interplay between observation and hypothesis.
Jourdain, who learned that he had been speaking prose all his life without realizing it, every human being is an expert in the consequences of the laws of mechanics, whether or not he has ever seen these laws written down.
It has been estimated, for example, that the World Series baseball championship would have changed hands in if one crucial swing at the ball had been a mere millimeter lower. It is the task of classical mechanies to discover and formulate the essential principles, so that they can be applied to any situation, pat- ticularly to inanimate objects interacting with one another.
Our intimate familiarity with our own muscular actions and their consequences, although it represents a kind of understanding and an important kind, too , does not help us much here.
They had noticed various regularities and had learned to predict such things as conjunctions of the planets and eclipses of the sun and moon. His assistant, Johannes Kepler, after wresting with this enormous body of in- formation for years, found that all the observations could be summarized as follows: 1.
The planets move in ellipses having the sun at one focus. If universal gravitation had done no more than to relate planetary periods and distances, it would still have been a splen- did theory. But, like any other good theory in physics, it had predictive value; that is, it could be applied to situations besides the ones from which it was deduced, Investigating the predic- tions of a theory may involve looking for hitherto unsuspected phenomena, or it may involve recognizing that an already familiar phenomenon must ft into the new framework.
Here are some of the phenomena for which Newton proceeded to give quantitative explanations: 1, The bulging of the earth and Jupiter because of their rotation, 2. Newton had, in the theory of universal gravitation, created what would be called today a mathematical model of the solar system.
And having once made the model, he followed out a host of its other implications. The working out was purely mathematical, but the final step—the test of the conclusions— involved a return to the world of physical experience, in the detailed checking of his predictions against the quantitative data of astronomy. Perhaps the most impressive of these was the use of his laws to identify previously unrecognized mem- bers of the solar system.
By a painstaking and lengthy analy of the motions of the known planets, it was inferred that dis- turbing influences due to other planets must be at work. And this may make it hard to realize that, as with any other physical theory, its development was not just a matter of mathematical logic applied undis- criminatingly to a mass of data, Was Newton inexorably driven to the inverse-square law? By no means.
It is a process of induction, and it goes beyond the facts immediately at hand.
AP French - Newtonian Mechanics
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