LUIS DE CAMOES OS LUSIADAS PDF

The path common to both is the green line. The poem consists of ten cantos , each with a different number of stanzas in total. The narration concludes with an epilogue, starting in stanza of canto X. Jupiter says that their history proves it because, having emerged victorious against the Moors and Castilians , this tiny nation has gone on to discover new worlds and impose its law in the concert of the nations. In contrast to the style of lyric poetry, or "humble verse" "verso humilde" , he is thinking about this exciting tone of oratory. Examples of dynamic descriptions include the "battle" of the Island of Mozambique , the battles of Ourique and Aljubarrota , and the storm.

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The path common to both is the green line. The poem consists of ten cantos , each with a different number of stanzas in total. The narration concludes with an epilogue, starting in stanza of canto X. Jupiter says that their history proves it because, having emerged victorious against the Moors and Castilians , this tiny nation has gone on to discover new worlds and impose its law in the concert of the nations.

In contrast to the style of lyric poetry, or "humble verse" "verso humilde" , he is thinking about this exciting tone of oratory. Examples of dynamic descriptions include the "battle" of the Island of Mozambique , the battles of Ourique and Aljubarrota , and the storm.

There are also many lyrical moments. Those texts are normally narrative-descriptive. All these cases resemble eclogues. On several occasions the poet assumes a tone of lamentation, as at the end of Canto I, in parts of the speech of the Old Man of the Restelo, the end of Canto V, the beginning and end of Canto VII, and the final strophes of the poem.

Many times, da Gama bursts into oration at challenging moments: in Mombasa Canto II , on the appearance of Adamastor, and in the middle of the terror of the storm.

Each one of these types of speech shows stylistic peculiarities. Synopses of Cantos[ edit ] Canto I[ edit ] The epic begins with a dedication section, with the poet paying homage to Virgil and Homer. The story then in imitation of the classical epics portrays the gods of Greece watching over the voyage of Vasco da Gama.

Just as the gods had divided loyalties during the voyages of Odysseus and Aeneas , here Venus , who favors the Portuguese, is opposed by Bacchus , who is here associated with the east and resents the encroachment on his territory.

At the urging of Bacchus, who is disguised as a Moor, the local Muslims plot to attack the explorer and his crew. Canto II[ edit ] Two scouts sent by Vasco da Gama are fooled by a fake altar created by Bacchus into thinking that there are Christians among the Muslims. Thus, the explorers are lured into an ambush but successfully survive with the aid of Venus. Venus pleads with her father Jove , who predicts great fortunes for the Portuguese in the east.

The fleet lands at Melinde where it is welcomed by a friendly Sultan. He starts by referring to the situation of Portugal in Europe and the legendary story of Lusus and Viriathus. This is followed by passages on the meaning of Portuguese nationality and then by an enumeration of the warrior deeds of the 1st Dynasty kings, from Dom Afonso Henriques to Dom Fernando. This canto ends with the sailing of the Armada, the sailors in which are surprised by the prophetically pessimistic words of an old man who was on the beach among the crowd.

This is the episode of the Old Man of the Restelo. During the voyage, the sailors see the Southern Cross , St. Vasco da Gama, seeing the near destruction of his caravels , prays to his own God, but it is Venus who helps the Portuguese by sending the Nymphs to seduce the winds and calm them down. After the storm, the armada sights Calicut, and Vasco da Gama gives thanks to God.

The canto ends with the poet speculating about the value of the fame and glory reached through great deeds. Canto VII[ edit ] After condemning some of the other nations of Europe who in his opinion fail to live up to Christian ideals , the poet tells of the Portuguese fleet reaching the Indian city of Calicut. The king, Samorin, hears of the newcomers and summons them. A governor and official of the king, called the Catual, leads the Portuguese to the king, who receives them well.

The Catual then goes to the Portuguese ships himself to confirm what Monsayeed has told him and is treated well. Canto VIII[ edit ] The Catual sees a number of paintings that depict significant figures and events from Portuguese history, all of which are detailed by the author. The priest spreads the warnings among the Catuals and the court, prompting Samorin to confront da Gama on his intentions. Da Gama insists that the Portuguese are traders, not buccaneers.

Da Gama manages to get free only after agreeing to have all of the goods on the ships brought to shore to be sold. To reward the explorers for their efforts, Venus prepares an island for them to rest on and asks her son Cupid to inspire Nereids with desire for them. When the sailors arrive on the Isle of Love, the ocean nymphs make a pretense of running but surrender quickly. Canto X[ edit ] During a sumptuous feast on the Isle of Love, Tethys , who is now the lover of da Gama, prophecies the future of Portuguese exploration and conquest.

Tethys then guides da Gama to a summit and reveals to him a vision of how the Ptolemaic universe operates. The tour continues with glimpses of the lands of Africa and Asia.

The legend of the martyrdom of the apostle St. Thomas in India is told at this point. Finally, Tethys relates the voyage of Magellan. Observations about some episodes[ edit ] The Council of the Olympic gods[ edit ] This episode, which comes right after the first strophe of the narration no.

The gods of the four corners of the world are reunited to talk about "the future matters of the East" "as cousas futuras do Oriente" ; in fact, what they are going to decide is whether the Portuguese will be allowed to reach India and what will happen next.

In strophes 22 and 23 they are also said to be shining. During the council, the behaviour of the gods is described as disgraceful. Jupiter, after the end of his speech, entirely neglects the guidance of the other Gods, so two parties are formed: the party of Venus , favourable to the Portuguese, and the party of Bacchus, defending the interests of this god who wanted to stop the Portuguese from reaching their goal.

The council ends by accepting the point of view earlier expressed by Jupiter; however, Bacchus will not accept this. The speech that Jupiter uses to start the meeting is a finished piece of oratory.

It opens with an exordium 1st strophe , in which, after an original welcome, Jupiter briefly defines the subject. This is followed, in the ancient rhetorical fashion, by the narration the past shows that the intention of the Fados is the same one that the orator presented.

There is then a confirmation of suggestions already put forth in the narration of the 4th strophe. The episode discusses destiny , and leads the action to its tragic end, even something close to the coir apostrophes. The nobility of the characters is also emphasised, in a way that is intended to create feelings of sympathy when the protagonist suffers. Strophes and are written to evoke this pity. Adamastor[ edit ] The Adamastor episode is divided into three segments.

This is intended to convey pure fear, the imminent threat of annihilation. The evil demigod is preceded by a black cloud, which appears above the heads of the sailors. Such emphasis on the appearance of Adamastor is intended to contrast with the preceding scenery, which was expressed as: "seas of the South" "mares do Sul" : " The locus amoenus: the strophes that come after strophe 52 of Canto IX, and some of the main parts that appear from strophe 68 to 95 describe the scenery where the love encountered between the sailors and the Nymphs take place.

The poet also talks about the fauna that live there and of fruits produced instantly. It is portrayed as a paradise. Impossiblities you cannot do, Who always wanted always could: and numbered You will be amongst the famous heroes And in this Isle of Venus received. To be able to translate this by the "painting that talks" is to achieve one of the highest points in universal literature.

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Lisbon , Coimbra or Alenquer are frequently presented as his birthplace, although the latter is based on a disputable interpretation of one of his poems. His mother later remarried. For a period, due to his familial relations he attended the University of Coimbra , although records do not show him registered he participated in courses in the Humanities. He frequently had access to exclusive literature, including classical Greek, Roman and Latin works; he read Latin and Italian, and wrote poetry in Spanish.

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