What is it that makes designers of social systems think that they need to design cities as well? My library Help Advanced Book Search. Full of information, interpretation, and analysis. A great take on urban anthropology.
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Kostof seeks to explain the evolution of urban design through sociological patterns of human settlements dating back to Maya and Mesopotamia. His introduction describes the possible origins of urban design through the various human agglomerations, even if it is urbanism in an infantile form.
Spiro Kostof discusses these origins of urbanism from multiple influences; from the morphology of military necessity, political forces, sociological humanistic responses, religious reasons and infrastructure needs, of which, clean running water being the most critical to human settlement. Kostof describes the reasoning of different urban developments around the world, and what forces were primary to the resultant urban form.
For the ancient Maya, the civic center was arranged with strict adherence to the fundamental religious and palace structures, to the degree of which the sun, moon and stars were crucial to the orientation of the temples and courts. For other cities, their plans were based off the ability to get water to the ideal settlement areas, or to others yet, theirs was politically or commercially driven, like Wurzburg, Germany.
Kostof briefly explains the origins of how urban areas were defined as such and how certain areas developed from disparate villages to distinct urban centers supported by less dense agrarian uses for land. Kostof also draws from other urban thinkers, like Lynch, Jacobs and Wirth to develop a thorough framework in which to set his argument for the historical patterns that developed city form from as far back as there is recorded data. This rich theory set up in the introduction invites the reader to expand their thinking of urban design beyond the limits of modern city form.
Urban Design Spiro Kostof sets up his argument for urban design the city with some very concise points about what shapes them. His conclusion consists of nine points that make up his definition of a city. These points I argue are fundamental characteristics of city form and function. It is possible however for a city to exist without any one of these points. These nine points are not a city make, however, they do make it possible for a city to take form. For example, not all cities that cropped up along major rail stops through the United States stayed occupied for long, or that the ancient Maya rose to such great engineering heights and hierarchical political structures of classes, but suddenly collapsed, as described in Jared Diamonds book, Collapse.
These instances in history are critical to understanding the deeper meaning of urban design and not just cityscapes across time. However the various empires rose and fell over time, their reasons are useful for the decisions to be made in our modern cities as urban designers.
What Urban Design Can Be? What urban design can do is react to what the inhabitants needs are, but it can also instinctively anticipate potential futures in urban form based of the actions and patterns recorded over time. Architecture begins in two dimensions, and results in a three dimensional object, but urban design takes the perceptions and experiences from three dimensional space and introduces the fourth dimension, time.
Urban design is a study of the built environment that includes the relevant social and economic factors that occur over time. This is quite different from the study of many other fields.
Few are affected as much by time as the development of urban areas are as they evolve over years, decades and centuries.
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