Definition[ edit ] There is no single definition of what is a fad diet, encompassing a variety of diets with different approaches and evidence base, and thus different outcomes, advantages and disadvantages. Physical or physiological testing, such as kinesiology and blood group analysis. Very-low calorie diets: Food-specific diets, which encourage eating large amounts of a single food, such as the cabbage soup diet , High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins diet , which first became popular in the s, High-fiber, low-calorie diets, which often prescribe double the normal amount of dietary fiber , Liquid diets, such as SlimFast meal replacement drinks. Fad diets are generally restrictive, and are characterized by promises of fast weight loss   or great physical health notably by " detoxification " ,    and which are not grounded in sound science. Being nutritionally imbalanced, or highly restrictive, forbidding entire food groups or even only allowing one food or food type. In the most extreme form, they may claim that humans can survive without eating or by having liquid meals only or by consuming non-food items such as cotton wool.
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Definition[ edit ] There is no single definition of what is a fad diet, encompassing a variety of diets with different approaches and evidence base, and thus different outcomes, advantages and disadvantages. Physical or physiological testing, such as kinesiology and blood group analysis. Very-low calorie diets: Food-specific diets, which encourage eating large amounts of a single food, such as the cabbage soup diet , High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins diet , which first became popular in the s, High-fiber, low-calorie diets, which often prescribe double the normal amount of dietary fiber , Liquid diets, such as SlimFast meal replacement drinks.
Fad diets are generally restrictive, and are characterized by promises of fast weight loss   or great physical health notably by " detoxification " ,    and which are not grounded in sound science.
Being nutritionally imbalanced, or highly restrictive, forbidding entire food groups or even only allowing one food or food type. In the most extreme form, they may claim that humans can survive without eating or by having liquid meals only or by consuming non-food items such as cotton wool.
Recommending eating food in a specific order or combination, sometimes based on physiological properties such as genetics or blood type. Based on anecdotal testimonials such as personal success stories, instead of medical evidence from randomized controlled trials.
Requires the purchase of specific products, supplements or resources. Provides no health warning for those with pre-existing medical illnesses. Focuses on appearance enhancement rather than health benefits.
Being based on a "secret" that has yet to be discovered. The NICE devised a set of essential criteria to be met by commercial weight management organizations to be approved. Katz , "efforts to improve public health through diet are forestalled not for want of knowledge about the optimal feeding of Homo sapiens but for distractions associated with exaggerated claims, and our failure to convert what we reliably know into what we routinely do.
They propose a set of recommendations for a healthy diet :   Achieve an energy balance and maintain a healthy weight. Promote the consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains and nuts. Limit sweets and sugar. Limit salt from all sources and ensure salt is iodized. Limit total fat consumption and in particular replace saturated fats by unsaturated fats as much as possible, and eliminate trans-fatty acids.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans implement these recommendations in the US, as follows:   Follow a lifelong healthy eating pattern. Focus on variety, nutrient density and quantity. Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats. Reduce sodium intake. Prefer healthier food and beverage choices, such as nutrient-dense foods. These preferences should account for cultural and personal preferences to make application easier. Community support of healthy eating patterns for everyone.
Contrary to the previous editions which mainly focused on dietary components such as food groups and nutrients, the latest offer a more global approach focusing on eating patterns and nutrients characteristics as "people do not eat food groups and nutrients in isolation but rather in combination, and the totality of the diet forms an overall eating pattern".
These include the DASH diet for anyone but especially for cardiac risk prevention in obesity and diabetes, the Mediterranean diet with similar indications, the U. Department of Agriculture " MyPlate " for healthy diet guidelines, and the Ketogenic diet for reducing risk of seizures in people who have epilepsy. The Greek and Roman physicians considered that how a body functioned was largely dependent on the foods eaten, and that different foods could affect people in different way.
Overweight or being too slim were seen as signs of an unhealthy body, with an imbalance of its four essential "humours" black bile, yellow bile, blood and phlegm. He thought that the underlying principles of health were food and exercise, what he called "work", and that a high food intake needed a lot of hard work to be properly assimilated. As he wrote: "Man cannot live healthily on food without a certain amount of exercise".
He thought that changes in food intake should be made progressively to avoid upsetting the body. He made several recommendations, some of which being: walking or running after eating, wrestling, avoiding drinks outside of meals, dry foods for obese people, never missing a breakfast and eat only just one main meal a day, bathing in only lukewarm water, avoiding sex, and the more dangerous "induction of vomiting", which he considered particularly beneficial.
Nowadays, these advices seem mixed, some sensible, others inadvisable or even dangerous, but they made sense at the time given the contemporary knowledge and practices. For example, induced vomiting was quite popular, almost an art form. The importance of foods was further established by one of his followers, who became extremely influential, the Greek physician Galen BC , with his work On the Power of Foods, where he claimed that good doctors should also be good cooks, and provided several recipes.
Food was for sustenance alone, overindulging was morally and physically bad, at least a manifestation of a lack of self-control, but at worst leading to further passions and greed of other luxuries. Like consumer products in commercial markets, each of these diets has a brand name and is advertised as being better than competing brands. The recruiting programs of the healthy-diet cults consist almost entirely of efforts to convince prospective followers that their diet is the One True Way to eat for maximum physical health The specific cult whose "science"-backed schtick a person finds most convincing usually depends on his or her identity biases.
Lord Byron was obsessed with his appearance, as he had a "morbid propensity to fatten. His influence was such that he was accused of encouraging melancholia and emotional volatility on Romantic youth, making girls "sicken and waste away".
Indeed, according to Byron, "a woman should never be seen eating or drinking, unless it be lobster salad and champagne, the only truly feminine and becoming viands". Fletcher promoted chewing all food until it was thoroughly mixed with saliva, to the point that it was swallowed in a liquid state.
William Harvey, a surgeon known for a starch and sugar-free diet treatment for diabetes. He immediately lost weight, from to pounds eventually. Banting is credited for writing the first diet book, which at his death in sold more than 58, copies over a total of 12 editions published between and Although the copies of the first and second editions were printed at his expenses and distributed for free, in the hopes of "benefitting to the working-class people", he sold later copies.
Designed from a religious motivation, Graham promoted a raw-food vegetarian diet that was lower in salt and fat, emphasizing an anti-industrial, anti-medical "simpler" or "natural" lifestyle, opposing the meat and other rich, calorie-dense foods produced in great quantities in the industrial era, declaring them "sinful". During his time there, and due to his history, and inspired by the French vitalist school of medicine, he thought nutrition had moral as well as physical qualities, and viewed any desire for food or drink not due to necessity stark hunger or thirst to be depravation.
Consequently, he viewed gluttony as the debilitating consequence of an unhealthy urge. He was determined to fight against what he perceived as nutritional "debauchery" and gluttony.
He also described the use of corsets as "disfiguring" and advocated loose, comfortable clothing, which further attracted women to his precepts. After his death in , his followers, dubbed "Grahamites", most of them being women but also including famous men such as John Harvey Kellogg of cornflakes fame, continued to advocate vegetarianism, temperance and bran bread. Macfadden was one of the most effective promoter of diets in history, as he is believed by historians to be largely at the root of 20th and 21th health and fitness practices in America.
The 19th century also saw the first and one of the most dangerous fad diet pills, with the marketing of arsenic pills for weight loss, which not only did not work, but which dieters often consumed more quantity than the prescribed dosage.
Some diet hoaxes also appeared, such as the tapeworms diet, where the dieters would purportedly willfully ingest tapeworms in the hopes they would reach maturity in the intestines and absorb food, until the dieter attains the weight loss goal and consumes an anti-parasitic pill to kill and hopefully excrete the worms, if the dieter was lucky enough to not experience gastric obstruction.
Despite the American Medical Association opposing this use of amphetamines as early as due to problems of addiction, doctors continued to prescribe them, in addition to barbitates to reduce the addiction cravings. In , another liquid diet appears, the "cabbage soup diet", highly restrictive but promising great weight loss in the first week, at the expense of causing flatulence.
He grew in a difficult environment. At age 11, both of his parents were deceased, his father from alcoholism, his mother from tuberculosis, and suffered from several illnesses himself. He later went on to live in a farm, which fortified his health, and studied human physiology, diet and nutrition. Due to his history, and largely influenced by Graham, he became convinced that all health issues were due to nutrition.
He advocated a similar diet, and regular fasting in addition. His demise happened as a consequence of his extreme devotion to his own ideas: since he was convinced fasting could cure any ailment, he tried to treat a urinary tract blockage he developed in by fasting, which only caused emaciation which no doctor could undo.
In , the "sleeping beauty diet", using sedative pills to avoid eating, became popular. Slim Fast appears in , claimed as a "super diet" by having shakes for breakfast and lunch.
In , and , the Atkins diet , Zone diet and South Beach diets appear successively.
Food Faddism There are two required elements to food faddism. Exaggeration: Making wild health claims or having an obsession with only one tiny area of nutrition. There is a difference between believing that whole grains, for example, are good for your health in general. And, in making wild health claims about it curing specific diseases.
What is Food Faddism – Crash Dieting?