Taxonomic history[ edit ] Cecropia was first recognized and accounted for by Marcgrave and Piso , the latter including an illustration with characteristic features. Many species were also described by Hemsley , Richter , Donnell Smith , Rusby , , Huber , Robinson , Pittier , Bailey , and the most extensive number by Snethlage , When phylogenetic data became available, Cecropia was then moved back into the Urticaceae. The trees consist of very few branches, usually with candelabrum-like branching system. In the axils of the leaves formed during later development, the axillary branch primordiae do not produce more than one or two prophylls and a bud.
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Gradient elution used as the mobile phase for HPLC analysis. Antioxidant Activity 2. Phosphomolybdenum Method The total antioxidant activity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum method according to Pierto et al.
Aliquots of 0. Ascorbic acid was used as the reference standard. Fifty microliters of HE or EE diluted in methanol at different concentrations 0. After 30 min of incubation time, the absorbance was measured at nm. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. Then, the dichloromethane was evaporated entirely using nitrogen gas. Also, 40 mL of oxygenated distilled water was added with vigorous shaking.
The absorbance was read at nm. The antioxidant activity AA was calculated regarding inhibition percentage relative to the control using R control and R extract mean rate blanching of control quercetin and extract, respectively.
Briefly, a mixture of g of ground meat and 67 ml of distilled and deionized water with 7. The mixture containing only meat, water, and methanol was used as the control. BHT 7. Antiglycant Activity Antiglycant activity was in vitro determined using fructose-induced protein glycation models. The method was performed as described by Suzuki et al. Stock solutions of fructose 1. Each solution was sterilized by vacuum filtration using Nalgene cellulose nitrate membrane filters Fisher Scientific Ltd.
The fluorescent intensity was measured at nm excitation and nm emission. The antiglycant activity was expressed as percentage of fluorescent inhibition, using the vehicle as control: F control and F sample mean fluorescence rate of control vehicle and extract or reference standards, respectively. Enzymatic Activity 2.
The gels were stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue R 0. The activity of gelatinases was evidenced as bright regions bleached in the gel. Elastase Inhibition Elastase inhibition activity was determined according to the method of Bieth et al.
The absorbance was read at nm in a microplate. The inhibition rate was measured by the angular coefficient of the curves related to time x substrate concentration. Cell Proliferation Assay 2.
The human embryonic kidney lineage, HEK, was provided by Dr. Marcel Leist University of Konstanz, Germany. The cells were regularly examined regarding mycoplasma contamination and used until 20 passages. The cells were treated with various extracts concentrations The absorbance was measured at and nm respectively, to DMSO and isopropanol used to dissolve the formazan salt using a microplate reader Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA and values were calculated in comparison to the control cells.
At least, two experiments in triplicate were performed. Bonferroni test was used for lipid peroxidation and antiglycation activity. The GraphPad Prism 7. Results and Discussion 3. Phenolic and Flavonoids Contents Due to their antioxidant capacity, including the ability to chelate metallic ions and to scavenge free radicals, the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, are nowadays considered as indispensable components in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal, and cosmetic products, including those destined to prevent the aging phenomenon [ 26 ].
Thus, for better positioning of any herbal drug intended to be used as the active principle of topical pharmaceutical formulations, it is interesting to verify its phenolic and flavonoid contents. Although EE showed the highest total phenolic content, HE exhibited the highest total flavonoid content and higher yield Table 2.
GW]; Cecropia obtusifolia [mistaken of authors]; Cecropia adenopus Mart. Comments: Widespread and common invasive in inland Rarotonga from inland valley floors to Cloud Zone. Rapidly colonised any open area. Not present in Cheeseman flora, and noted as an uncommon tree in the s Wilder survey.
Embaúba - Cecropia pachystachya
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