CARTER LINDBERG THE EUROPEAN REFORMATIONS PDF

Goltizragore History, Historiography, and Interpretations of the Reformations. The Gospel and Social Order. Aye, it be a textbook. He also shows how the reformmovements were strengthened and spread by the singing of hymns andpsalms by the women and men who joined these movements. Amelia rated it really liked it Dec 11, Carter Lindberg also has a good writing style which makes the material very pleasurable to digest.

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As a result, on Halloween day, in , Martin Luther publicly questioned the actions of the church in his hometown of Wittenburg, leading to the Protestant Reformation. His Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences initiated a European dialogue which brought into question the legitimacy of Papal authority and the long accepted customs of the Roman Catholic Church. Pope Leo X and papal supporters denounced Luther, and criticized his interpretation of scriptures. Read more information about events leading to the Protestant Reformation in the first part of this series, The Catholic Low-Point.

Desiderius Erasmus was born in Thomas More was another humanist who lived in the time of the Protestant Reformations. They both criticized aspects about the Catholic Church, but when a divide between Protestant and Catholic occurred, both Erasmus and More defended the Roman Catholic Church against Martin Luther and his followers.

Martin Luther Martin Luther was a devout Christian with a god-fearing mind, who was never satisfied with his spiritual state. He came from a family of average wealth, but his father, Hans Luther, earned enough money from his occupation as a smeltermaster to allow Martin Luther to receive an in-depth education.

There are conflicting theories as to what influenced Luther to pursue a monastic life, but a lightning storm or the death an acquaintance are the most popular stories among scholars. His perceived sins tormented him into repeated acts of penance. One of the duties Martin Luther was required to perform as a monk was to attend regular confessions, and the man Luther confessed to, Johann von Staupitz, eventually encouraged Luther to study theology. Martin Luther first started teaching at the Augustinian university in Wittenberg around or Teaching at the university allowed Luther to sharpen his theological ideas.

The university provided Luther with access to theological writings, including various translations and differing opinions of the Bible, among which was a version of the New Testament translated by Erasmus. Luther concluded that sinners had to have faith that they were saved.

He was able to alleviate his own intense fear that his fasts, vigils and prayers were not enough to ensure his own salvation. He published his ideas in his ninety-five theses, but he was calling for a simple academic debate. The image and respect of the papacy was also at a low point because the reign of the corrupt Popes, Alexander VI and Julius II, was a fresh memory.

Men like Erasmus and More were fervent defenders of the Catholic faith, but even they had complaints of the church. Keith Hansley thehistorianshut.

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