BOSE EINSTEIN KONDENSAT PDF

Das lag zum einen daran, dass es nach Jahrzehnten endlich gelungen war, die betreffende Vorhersage Einsteins zu beweisen. Doch bei einer Bose-Einstein-Kondensation beginnt jede einzelne Atomwelle, exakt gleichphasig mit allen anderen zu schwingen. Weil der Aufenthaltsort eines Atoms nicht punktgenau definierbar ist, gleicht es eher einer verschwommenen Wolke. Weil man damals die erforderlichen Temperaturen — weniger als ein millionstel Kelvin — nicht im entferntesten zu erreichen vermochte, galt der hypothetische Aggregatzustand als pure Spekulation. In den Jahrzehnten seither kam das theoretische Konstrukt allerdings wieder in Mode.

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A Bose-Einstein condensate is a group of atoms cooled to within a hair of absolute zero. When they reach that temperature the atoms are hardly moving relative to each other; they have almost no free energy to do so.

At that point, the atoms begin to clump together, and enter the same energy states. They become identical, from a physical point of view, and the whole group starts behaving as though it were a single atom.

To make a Bose-Einstein condensate, you start with a cloud of diffuse gas. Many experiments start with atoms of rubidium. Then you cool it with lasers, using the beams to take energy away from the atoms. After that, to cool them further, scientists use evaporative cooling. Bose was working on statistical problems in quantum mechanics, and sent his ideas to Albert Einstein. Einstein thought them important enough to get them published. This is why electrons, for example, have discrete "orbitals" that they have to occupy, and why they give off photons of specific wavelengths when they drop from one orbital, or energy level, to another.

But cool the atoms to within billionths of a degree of absolute zero and some atoms begin to fall into the same energy level, becoming indistinguishable. Pauli was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

This is why when two electrons are in the same orbital, their spins have to be opposite so they add up to zero. Bose-Einstein condensates break that rule. Cornell and Carl E. In July , an experiment aboard the International Space Station cooled a cloud of rubidium atoms to ten-millionth of a degree above absolute zero, producing a Bose-Einstein condensate in space. Additional resources.

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