Next, the biggest bit of luck of all, Zen, through the books of Suzuki Daisetz Last but not least there appeared senryu, which might well be dignified by the term Senryu no Michi, the Way of Senryu, for it is an understanding of all things by laughing and smiling at them, and this means forgiving all things, ourselves and God included". His Haiku series —52 was dealing mostly with pre-modern haiku, though including Shiki ; later followed his two-volume History of Haiku — Many contemporary Western writers of haiku were introduced to the genre through his Zen-based haiku explanations. Salinger "

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Although there were further attempts outside Japan to imitate the "hokku" in the early 20th century, there was little understanding of its principles. One of the first advocates of English-language hokku was the Japanese poet Yone Noguchi.

In "A Proposal to American Poets," published in the Reader magazine in February , Noguchi gave a brief outline of the hokku and some of his own English efforts, ending with the exhortation, "Pray, you try Japanese Hokku, my American poets! In France, haiku was introduced by Paul-Louis Couchoud around Amy Lowell made a trip to London to meet Pound and find out about haiku. She returned to the United States where she worked to interest others in this "new" form. Blyth was an Englishman who lived in Japan.

In , with the publication in Japan of the first volume of Haiku, the four-volume work by Blyth, haiku were introduced to the post-war English-speaking world. This four-volume series —52 described haiku from the pre-modern period up to and including Shiki. Today Blyth is best known as a major interpreter of haiku to English speakers.

His works have stimulated the writing of haiku in English. The book includes both translations from Japanese and original poems of his own in English, which had previously appeared in his book titled A Pepper-Pod: Classic Japanese Poems together with Original Haiku. In these books Yasuda presented a critical theory about haiku, to which he added comments on haiku poetry by early 20th-century poets and critics. His translations apply a 5—7—5 syllable count in English, with the first and third lines end-rhymed.

Yasuda considered that haiku translated into English should utilize all of the poetic resources of the language. This notion of the haiku moment has resonated with haiku writers in English, even though the notion is not widely promoted in Japanese haiku. Henderson was published by Doubleday Anchor Books. After World War II, Henderson and Blyth worked for the American Occupation in Japan and for the Imperial Household , respectively, and their shared appreciation of haiku helped form a bond between the two.

Henderson translated every hokku and haiku into a rhymed tercet a-ba , whereas the Japanese originals never used rhyme. Unlike Yasuda, however, he recognized that 17 syllables in English are generally longer than the 17 on of a traditional Japanese haiku.

Because the normal modes of English poetry depend on accentual meter rather than on syllabics, Henderson chose to emphasize the order of events and images in the originals. English haiku can follow the traditional Japanese rules, but are frequently less strict, particularly concerning the number of syllables and subject matter.

The loosening of traditional standards has resulted in the term "haiku" being applied to brief English-language poems such as "mathemaku" and other kinds of pseudohaiku. Some sources claim that this is justified by the blurring of definitional boundaries in Japan. Since Modernism, several anthologies of Brazilian haikai have been published. He also translated some from Japanese.


Reginald Horace Blyth

Dietrich Krusche Hrsg. Japanische Gedichte. Ekkehard May Hrsg. Jan Ulenbrook Hrsg. Japanische Dreizeiler. Robert F.


Blyth in: Haiku, Hokuseido, , pp. Early life Blyth was born in Essex, England, the son of a railway clerk. After the war, he attended the University of London, from which he graduated in , with honours. Blyth played the flute, made musical instruments, and taught himself several European languages.

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